Glossary of Terms Casually Defined, Page Two: F to M
This is the sort of page one would never put together unless one had completed the journey away from seeking certain kinds of respectability. I will update and perhaps correct these entries from time to time. However, I have done little if anything to refresh my memory as to definitions before posting them and typing this with the original post almost ready for clicking the “publish” bar I do not think I have really looked up much of anything. The definitions are partial and casual. However, If one is confused and needs a start on the right path these ideas may help.
This Glossary Continues on Page Three:https://franksummers3ba.wordpress.com/acadian-forum-archive/glossary-of-terms-casually-defined-page1a-m/glossary-of-terms-casually-defined-page-two-n-to-z/
Fais Do-Do means “make sleep” this in practice means a Louisiana Acadian or Cajun dance but especially at a festival or fete de ville or other occasion when families all dance together and make sleep. There is a richness of meaning in few words in much of Acadian speech. The soft songs and dancing in streets or town centers allowed for spaces for shildren to be made to sleep by the soft songs, children and puppy lovers could sometimes take their nieces, nephews brother and sisers home and the fall alseep to dreams of puppy love. Then for the older folks sleep could beave a double entendre we can all fidure out for ourselves.
Federal Communications Commission – FCC The authority which oversse sovereign rights in the electromagnetic spectrum. In the eighties I was granted a lifetime license as a radiotelephone operator. I was the sole onsight operator/DJ for a radio station in the middle of the night.
Fete One’s saints day usually on or near one’s birthday in Bonne Fete which has nearly disappeared in Acadiana and also any feast or festival.
Fete National des Acadiens This is August 15 which is for Roman Catholics the Feast of the Assumption. Equally an both jointly and separately it is the National Day of the Acadians. Those of us who are both would like those in the Acadian Nation who are Jewish, Protestant, (even Anglican though today is an awkward day to be both), Freemasons with no other formal religion and adherents of other faith to join what is still the (not so large) Roman Catholic majority and not merely plurality of their countrymen in celebrating the Le Jour National des Acadiens. We also wish those Catholics who are not Acadians but live among large numbers of us would remember this is a dual holiday for us. It is a sad kind of National Holiday. We do remember all that we are but we are not principally celebrating the founding of Acadie by our ancestors which has become Nova Scotia. We are not primarily remembering the founding of theNovelle Acadie in Louisiana which has become Acadiana. We are primarily remembering the tragedy, time of weakness (relative to an old and established empire in its homeland) , loss and death which is the destruction of the land of Acadie and the start of Le Grand Derangement. This holiday has roots in the past since the Acdians were French subjects and as the first came to the new World the King of France had just designated the feast as the special day of France and the French. In 1881 there was the first large public and open convention of the Acadians since the exile itself in which a few thousand gathered for real national policy and it was at that time that they declared the holiday a national feast. The reason cited by some knowledgeable sources is in part to distinguish them from the French Canadians who honored St. John the Baptist as their patron. They also honor it because it is a feminine holiday in a Christianity which has sold out to a largely woman-hating world in much of the modern era. While some parts of the world were more anti-feminist in the past and some are eager to bring that back – the feminine half of things was prized in much of Ancient Greece, Byzantine Christianity, High Medieval France and Acadie. Acadians can remember that we stand with that always developing tradition and against its destruction. In 1938 the Pope officially recognized the Acadian celebration of the Feast of the Assumption as their national holiday. He also entrusted them to the special patronage of Our Lady that this recognizes. Of course the Assumption itself actually celebrates the raising of the body of Mary into Heaven to join her believer’s spirit. this is very hard for Protestant, Jewish or Skeptic Acadians to relate to one would think. First let us think about the celebration in Biblical terms of interest to Protestants and Jews. The Bible talks of Enoch and Elijah being taken up into heaven and so it is not without precedent in the Jewish Scriptures. For Protestants remember that in addition to these two Old Testament precedent we have what can be taken as the prophecy of Mary that in her life God lifts up the lowly to lofty thrones in the Canticle Catholics call the Magnificat in the early part of Luke’s Gospel. The skeptical interpretation is not ofr this glossary .The observance also involves Tintamarre in this glossary.
filiation The predominantlylegal term for the reproduction of human beings and the production of offspring or children. This word comes from the Latin root. Filius means son and filia means daughter in Latin. In traditional Acadian social theory there are four classes of filiation. Should an Acadian influenced government emerge it would need to incorporate special lower categories for sperm donations and other situations not common in the past. Paternal filiation is ranked in orders. The higher the order the more claim the child has on titles, status, inheritance and property of the father. All five categories have some claim on their father but not an equal claim. Here the orders are in order:
1. Highest and first is Legitimate which is the category of a child born in formal and monogamous wedlock to the man by his wife.
2. Restricted is the second category: this would cover children born to the second wives of unbaptized Micmac chiefs and non-first wives of any polygamous families legal in their marriage at an equal level abroad. This is also available to the Basileus and a tiny number of royal Princes of the people when they take wives in ancient relationships that have existed in the tribe since before both Rome and Christianity when all forms are at least basically honored.
3. Natural is the third category: This is the category of Creoles of Color born to mistresses kept on Rampart Street and special plantations in Louisiana before the War Between the States. It is the category of children born to a woman who bears the children of a King, Prince or Emperor if married to a vassal or minister of that king and living in some community with both but who will rear the child as the royal’s child and is expressly devoted in a public way to the royal lord of the court. It is the category of children born to an engaged couple when the father dies prior to the birth or marries the mother within a year and has not yet adopted the child or remained married long enough to legitimize the child. It is the category to which a child fall in relation to his unrelated putative and disowning father if that father shows he is the product of adultery and seeks to disinherit him or her. The man who is found to have consented actively to his wife’s relations with another man remains the father of a legitimate heir however. It is the category of unions with defects of a true mistresses kept by formal arrangement and in a way which establishes a household.
4. Illegitimate is the Fourth Category. An illegitimate child is born to a cohabiting couple for a fairly brief period of time. Such children or also born to women associated with the house or household the child’s noble father. Such children are also born women who support an unmarried lover over a long time in describing the paternal relationship to the child. It is also the status of a child born to any slave, prisoner or other person without meaningful female choice as regards the father where this is not remedied by other laws and covenants.
5. Bastard is the Fifth Category. This is the category of filiation produced by an adultery that leads to divorce before birth if the woman has not remarried. It is the category produced by prostitution if there is no husband of the licensed prostitute who has undertaken paternal responsibilities. It is the category of offspring produced by all relations not covered by the first four categories. That includes rape. However, the mother has other remedies for the gaining of funds from the father in the case of rape in an Acadian society.
Foreign Expert In 2004 I was certified by the People’s Republic of China as a Foreign Expert by the Board of Foreign Experts and the Public Security Bureau of the People’s Republic of China.
Franciscan University of Steubenville A Franciscan universtiy on the banks of the Ohio River which was in distress and began a transformation by being tied with the Catholic Charismatic Renewal through the work and person of Fahter Michael Scanlon and his colleagues. I won the Sophomore Class Award there in 1985 (it was also won by a female). I also had the largest role in a play on campus. In my wedding party I had three ushers who were relatives were relatives, one groomsman who was a relative and three who were Louisiana friends. Two were Household brothers from Steubenville. One of my sister attended on a Disciple of Christ Scholarship and graduated with honors.
Frank Wynerth Summers II My father is still very much alive as I type this and although he has now had three cancers I hope he will live for many more years yet — I am Frank Wynerth Summers III and was born when he was still a young Tulane Law student. My father married Gene Marie Gremillion who changed her name to Genie Gremillion Summers and I was their first child together although she had secretly given a child conceived out of wedlock up fro adoption when she was in college. In my childhood and early years this was never mentioned and my father always was actively involved in what appeared to be a young marriage not much given to secrets although he did fight organized crime a few times as an assistant District attorney and had his clients secrets as a lawyer. he was a very avid outdoorsman and many times included me in his outings although many times he did not.
My father attended Mount Carmel High School in Abbeville, Spring Hill College (a Jesuit school) in Alabama and Tulane University undergraduate and Law School in New Orleans. After working a while he took me and my mother with him to continue his studies at King’s College at the University of London and then later at Columbia University in New York. After a religious conversion experience in which he returned to his Catholic faith which he had abandoned for atheism in college he led our family on a series of lay missions within the Catholic Church to Tonga, Samoa, Navajoland in the US mainland, Mexico, Colombia, New Xealand and the Philippines. My father has practiced law from time to time at varied levels and doneother things as well. He and my mother founded Family Missions Company in the late nineties. They have now largely retired and have built a small home amid the other buildings where as of February 2014 I live with them. He is still avid sportsman who taught me to shoot, fish, ride horses and work with hounds.
Frank Wynerth Summers III also Beau Summers, Frank W. Summers, Frank W. Summers III, Frank “Beau” Summers and Frank Beau Summers My published writing has appeared under each and every one of the by-lines listed above. Almost all of this glossary and this blog is from a point of view which is distinctly mine. I was born to Genie Gremillion Summers and Frank Wynerth Summers II in Crowley in Acadia Parish in the State of Louisiana USA on June 15, 1964. I have no official military or criminal records other than registering with Selective Service and minor traffic offenses. I have a Bachelor’s and a Master’s degree from schools in this glossary. I have been married, divorced and anulled from a woman in this glossary. I have received quite a few honors many of which are listed in this glossary. This is not abiograohical sketch but I do have one on this blog elsewhere.
French Neutrals A term applied to the Acadians who had lived under French rule, spoke French and had many ties to France before being delivered to British rule in Nova Scotia.
Gallo Greciae A term used by the Romans to describe mixed people of mostly Celtic blood and mostly Greek culture.
Genie Gremillion Summers My mother born Gene Marie Gremillion in Midland, Texas during the Second World War to Beverlee Hollier Gremillion and Cecil Bruce Gremillion. The mother of eight of which I am the eldest of sevend full and legal syblings who cohabited and shared the life experience of syblings although I am much older than the next of these and so there are nuances. She has written and published plays on her complex imteraction with Acadian and other South Louisiana roots and seen them produced in her secular young adulthood. She has witten produced and directed plays especially with religious Christmas themes since then. She has written and produced a religious memoir listed in this glossary. She produced a documentary film when I was a child and has published numerous articles in numerous formats. She has stayed married to my father for over 47 years. She has been an officer in Family Missions Company for a bit more than the last decade as I type this in 2010.
genealogical rank This is a misleading or even inaccurate term for something of great importance in the workings and politics of the Ethnos Arkadios. I will use numbers that have been used by some in the past but if a regular regime was restored the Comite de Renaissance would somewhat rework the system and be free to largely revise the numbers while preserving the basic relationships between the numbers. Being a second class member of the Tribe under the Vieux Lois des Familles is worth seventy points and being a first class member under that same law is worth ninety points. Being born in Greater Acadiana is worth twenty points. Being White, Roman Catholic,Greek Orthodox, speaking French, being born in any of six named regions Louisiana, Arcadia, Acadie, La Rochelle, Normandy or le Centre Ouest and speaking Greek or each separately worth fifteen points and can be combined. Holding a degree from the Universite des Acadiens or St. Anne’s is worth fifteen points. Membership in a Low Chiefly Clan is worth five, Middle Chiefly ten, High Chiefly twenty and Princely forty, Maison de Roi eighty points multiple memberships are cumulative. Service in the tribal Government is worth between ten and fifty points. Using the points above this sentence one also receives one half the pints of their spouse and a third of the points of their parents. In addition one receives five hundred points for being Basileus, three hundred for being a Basilissa and two hundred for being a Prince. These points are inherited diminishing by a third of the passed number with each legitimate generation, by a half in the same way on natural lines and bytwo thirds in the same way on all other filial lines. These points also back up to parents and cross to syblings at half and then flow only to legitimates at the rate that direct descendants pass on the natural line. A person with a score above seventy five points who is not a member of the Tribe is entitled to apply continuously for and is eligible to be admitted to the Bouletherion fictional family association. Whenever there is a true tie in any election or competition that is not otherwise broken the highest genealogical rank must prevail.
genealogy In general the art, craft and science of keeping track of ancestry and investigating it as well as setting up lineages, family trees and many other things which typify the field. This is an obsession of many Acadians even the majority who currently doubt that an Acadian Secret Government has ever existed or certainly has existed recently. In the Acadian Secret Government there are several high offices for Genealogists. The Basileus is elected. First there is a Line of Succession. That includes in order of succession the relatives of the Basileus. Only male relatives are on the Line of Succession but the female relations can transmit the line more than in European dynasties. Only a male can hold the office of Basileus and be Chef des Chefs but the Basilissa title is multiple, taking in his mother and his wife. Each Basilissa has a field of superior rights. There are numerous ancillary titles in varied languages but above all his sisters and daughters assume a variety of titles when a regime is open and prosperous and some of these convey lesser titles to a son. Also we have had three generation titles in the past, going forth only for three generations. All of these things require careful genealogies to account for in this society. Returning to the Line of Succession basically there are Princes Herediteurs in the following order : First, Sons which is the category that includes real sons and other generations. All sons would be in order first, then the sons of the first in order and then the sons of the second in order but all would be Sons even great-grandsons precede any lower category but no great-grandson has ever inherited. More than one first son of first son has inherited but none were second heirs which means that their own uncles outranked them in all cases. No single son has been skipped for his own son that I know of at all. All heirs must be thirteen or older to be candidates. Categories following Sons in this inclusive sense are: Brothers, Sisters’ Sons, Brothers’ Sons and then by ritual of the name Uncles and First Cousins. There are then exceptions and variations ,these allow some effects to adoption and marriage when triggered by certain events and empower the conclave to act to complete a flawed claim. A father cannot inherit from his son but holds titles due to his condition. How long the line of candidates proceeds depends upon the condition of the regime. Seven is the minimum and forty is about the highest ever recorded. Then in the middle of this are inserted the five permanent candidates: Prince Boulet, Prince Theriot, Prince Broussard, Prince Mouton and Prince Leblanc. Next there is the merit phase – rarely have open trials and ordeals been used in recent centuries but the idea of returning to their use if out of secret was always agreed — recently a score card has been filled in by investigators using appearance, physical and intellectual prowess, education and the performance of candidates in open and ASG elections. These scores were made up as half of a composite with another score derived from one’s place in the line of succession. Higher ranks receive much more than lower but the difference between first and second heirs is rather small. The genealogists approve this final score with others. Then the Broussard Proviso of the nineteenth century is applied and those candidates showing the most attachment and connection to the Grand Famille des Broussard are given a bonus. A few candidates by complex formula are submitted to a much reduced conclave derived from the abbreviated Bouletherion and the Basileus is elected. The genealogist then produces a new line of succession. Significant change would occur if this became public as there is a public ideal and this survival mode is not at all the one which embodies that ideal. The three principles of heredity, merit and election would remain however.
General Cepeda Current post-revolutionary name of a town founded as San Francisco de Los Patos. A rather lovely and quaint town in the Sate of Coahuila in Mexico. Supported by the cultivation of low grade cactus products, goat pastoral culture including cheese manufacture,pecan cultivation, some holiday-oriented tourism and recently by jobs provided by industrial poultry and a Chrysler Corporation automobile plant. Our fanily and various groups associated with the family have been involved in religious work in the municipality (the town and attendant ranchos or villages) since I was one of the earliest to go as a sixteen year old living in Saltillo nearby with my father and friends. Varied siblings, nieces and nephews of mine have gone to school there. My second sister was married there. Work results have included bringing a school-bus and computers to local schools, building and improving chapels, houses, churches and clinics. My parents own (in a complex convoluted legal context) half of one of the palaces of the Marques de Aglaya who once ruled the region as a fiefdom.
General Mouton An Acadian Confederate General who died of wounds received at Shiloh. The second and last Basileus to be a Mouton.
Go! You are Sent… A sort of memoir written by my mother and once distributed mostly by a small distribution company I had which placed these books with dozens of outlets around the country and the world at its height of sales with my small company. I am a significant character in this book but mostly very young.
Governor Mouton A Governor of Louisiana who was the first Basileus to be a Mouton or other than a Broussard in Louisiana. The only Basileus to abdicate in many centuries when not mortally wounded or deathly ill abdicated in favor of General Mouton.
Grand Pre A significant small town in the colony of Acadie. Today there is a statue of Evangline the Acadian heroine of Longfellow’s epic poem. There is also chapel reproducing the one where Acadians were imprisoned prior to expulsion. There are murals, engraved names and other aspects of the memorial preserve some of the events of Le Grand Derangement. I have made a pilgrimage there with some family members and friends as many Louisiana Acadians do.
gris-gris a sort of curse or dark magical intervention in Voodoo. Often there is a built in transactional aspect in the minds of believers and practitioners so that a remedy of a particular kind or a debt of some kind is intended as necessary to relieve the effects of the curse.
gumbo is a dish which is very much part of Acadian cuisine. However it origins or in the neighboring Louisiana Creole culture it is a blend of French Provincial influences from the white Creoles and African influences from the Creoles of Color dominate in its origins. It is basically only necessary that it be a fairly slow cooked hearty soup with either a roux or fresh okra or both as a thickener to be a gumbo. To be an Acadian Gumbo (and mostly true for the other cultures as well) it should have meat and diced or minced onions, peppers, shallots and parsley added at three stages of fully sauteed and cooked, heavily cooked but not sauteed and lightly scattered in fresh near the end of cooking. Gumbo is a part of many Acadian autumn and winter customs and traditions. In English we call sudden cool weather “gumbo weather”.
HADACOL is an acronym for Happy Day Company of Louisiana. This acronym itself was the name of a product of nutrients including vitamins, herbs and alcoholic liquids which was developed, designed and marketed by Dudley Leblanc who was my cousin and the last Basileus named Leblanc. HADACOL was the second largest total advertiser in in dollars in the United States for at least two years. The name an sunny logo show that it is code for Beausoleil which means beautiful sunshine as well as being code for Basileus. He was making those who already suspected it aware that he was the Basileus without disclosing it to those who did not need to know.
Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television An academic historical journal in which I published a review of Pare Lorentz’s posthumous book FDR’s Moviemaker: Memoirs & Scripts. I was then a Board of Regents Fellow at Louisiana State University.
Historic New Orleans Collection see The Historic New Orleans Collection
Home Rule means many things in other places. In Louisiana it was one of the two formal factions of the Louisiana Democratic Party which endured the longest during the years of the Solid South when the Democratic Party primaries were the only elections that mattered in most Louisiana races. Home Rule was usually mainly defined by opposing Machine. Its single positivist policy was to strengthen Police Juries and City Charters. Many of its members had little interest in this policy. It was made of ethnic leaders on the outs with the governor and majority faction, Libertarian and conservative Republican converts and anyone the core group could recruit for important votes, elections and offices.
Honorary Lieutenant Governor This is a real honor I received in the early nineties. It resembles a modern British Knighthood not in prestige but in that its duties and obligations are not entirely clear. More or less, I was honored as ambassador for the State of Louisiana and am beholden to continue as such when it appeals to my conscience to do so.
Houma A tribe of Aboriginal Americans that was dying out when the Acadians arrived in Louisiana. The Acadians had a working relationship with the Houma for a century or more. They were given support and trade concessions with the understanding that Catholicism and freemasonry would be well tolerated and that metis or mixed Acadian and Aboriginal American families from any background could enter the tribe. The Tribe has never been a full partner in the community of tribes in recent centuries and has always had a faction who sought to maintain a distinct metis identity. There is also some idea that a Natchez band joined the Houma at about the time the Acadians came which also changed the tribe’s make-up and character all of this has led to greater change than in any typical culture in a few centuries. Formal relations with Acadians have decayed as Acadian forms have decayed with which to relate.
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Many large hurricanes have hit the Gulf Coast and the lands of Louisiana. Several such as Andrew and Lilly have impacted my life. However, Katrina had a devastating impact on the east of the state the rest of the state including me adjusted to help. Then in the same season Rita devastated the west and central part of the state’s coast. I was injured in Rita after just having gotten settled back in the United States after returning from China. I began a journey through California and Mexico before ending up back here in Acadiana.
Jean-Jacques-Alfred-Alexandre “Alfred” Mouton (February 10, 1829 – April 8, 1864) was a Confederate brigadier general in the American War Between the States and was the second and last Basileus of the Moutons in recent Louisiana history. He was born in Opelousas, Louisiana as the son of former Governor of Louisiana and the first Basileus who was not a Broussard in Louisiana history the notable Alexandre Mouton. Young Alfred was enrolled in the the fine Jesuit institution St. Charles College in Grand Coteau, Louisiana where he did reasonably well in an all French, Latin and Greek linguisitc milieu. Upon his graduation from St. Charles College, Alexandre Mouton exhibited the faith in the Union which would be related to his being the only Louisiana Basileus to abdicate when he did so in favor of his son Alfred as the split approached. He exhibited these hopes for US unity when he secured for Alfred an appointment to the United States Military Academy which of course had many other future Confederates in its halls as well. Mouton began his studies in West Point, New York after having been reluctant to go at first because up until that point in his life he had been only around French speaking people and customs and because among Anglophone Americans he already was cultivating ties to Celtics in the South. Mouton knew little English but on his father’s urging enrolled in 1846. At West Point, Mouton was by some measures an average student with places of excellence including French, but it was evident that he struggled with the new English language situation of his life. Alfred graduated from West Point on July 1, 1850, 38th out of 44. He served with the United States Army just briefly before resigning his commission that September. As soon as he resigned his commission Mouton took up a civil engineering position as an assistant engineer for the New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad. His belief in technology and the need for sound railroads and the increased technological sophistication of the Sugar plantations brought him into prominence in relating to Acadian, Creole and Anglophone farmers and planers . After resigning from the railroad business after a year or so and becoming more involved in Secret Acadian Government duties Mouton took up farming sugar cane in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana as his means of financial support. He served as leader of the Lafayette Vigilante Committee, which formed to dispense justice to those who paid off juries or perjured witnesses, established an attempt at a racial policy code in a new era, fought large-scale bandits and gangsters operating in the region and suppressed Yankee agitators and agents . These people became the Confederate movement leaders in the area. . He also served as brigadier general in the Louisiana State Militia from 1850–61 before taking a Confederate command and spent most of his life in Lafayette. Beloved by those under his command, Mouton was a strict drillmaster and disciplinarian who simultaneously freely socialized with his troops. He was killed at the Battle of Mansfield while leading his men in a cavalry charge.
IDEAL Instituto de Estudios America Latina An intense language academy in the city Cuernavaca in Mexico. My father and I studied there when my sister Sarah was a little baby. All of us, including my mother who was not enrolled left Cuernavaca speaking some Spanish and ready to begin learning. Since then I have had several friends who went there to study. As I type this I have a third cousin enrolled there.
Industries This word is spelled the same and has approximately the same meaning in French and in English. The word has been applied however by the Acadian Secret Government or Le Cinque des Ethnos Arkadios to apply to a certain kind of economic activity. This policy has been very limited in application in these long-standing irregular times. Almost all credit must go to the people themselves and other players but nonetheless the Acadian Secret Government has done what it could to encourage those activities related to the central way of life. First it means farming, preserving and managing the wilderness in terms of trapping, growing soft shell crabs, crawfish and alligators while still preserving the wild habitat of other creatures. Second it means having a fully balanced farm with small cash products near the home administered by the men and large crops and herds farther out for the men to tend. Third it means using local capital and labor for processing at a basic level so that larger sustainable fishing, gathering and farming populations can be maintained. In history this has meant HADACOL, making Spanish moss into processed material for stuffing upholstery, cleaning and processing gators into basic packed skins and meat, lumbering in a controlled manner and making lumber from the raw timber, drying and processing the cereals grown localy .Before and during the civil war real cottage industries (unlike the more typical small shops) produced rather enormous quanties of simple spindle and calfskin chairs, small wooden chests, canned and dried foods and leather belts for sale in the South. Prior to the Civil War this was mostly in New Orleans and during the war mostly to the Confederate commanders directly on the field. Smuugling through Union lines was an Acadian specialty as smuggling has always been a skill valued in the culture. Although this is not an insisted upon principle this is an older government and code than any state and we struggle to preserve it thus smuggling is an especially questionable case. The Fourth, it has also meant working at all levels in the oil industry and owning shops that could interact with all of these oil companies around the world. It has meant maintaining small ports, slaughterhouses, auction barns and other cattle infrastructure. The truth is that this ideal was never meant to be exclusive but lately it has been harder to maintain in any way. Yet a learned observer can see much that distinguishes the place of Acadiana in this regard. Fifth, it has been the custom to put pressure in vague ways to make it possible for every hunter to be an infantryman, every fishing boat and trader a potential corsair and every helicopter part of an air force. In Acadian philosophy the peaceful accumulation of wealth should involve preparing to defend it and the people who live upon and among it.
ISTL Insurance Specialty Training of Louisiana This is the school where I did my brief intensive course for a license to sell Life and Health Insurance in Louisiana. While there is currently much talk of changing this law it has long been the case that each state licenses its own insurance and regulates its own insurance industry in the United States. A note on alphabetical order. I am treating this entry and the last as beginning with “I” and thus coming before” illegitimate” the two next reasons for order coincide the t after ins in one word precedes the the u after ins in the other and the D also precedes the S. However, anytime one uses this glossary it would be good to look around the neighborhood for listed words.
illegitimate for principal definition see filiation. The term also relates to theories of law, title government and social order. I will be using it in a context that may be unfamiliar and so will probably try to make clear what that context is. The main thing is that in an Acadian system defects are more often admitted and remedied than in many (but not all) more famous system of protocol and title.
Invisible, Nameless & Forgotten A term used by the Basileus in English in lieu of a title on certain occasions. Also used by special ambassador impostors in other situations. Its meaning is more evocative than strictly declarative.
July 28 The day set aside to commemorate “the Great Upheaval” and expulsion of the Acadians in Queen Elizabeth of Scotland and of England Second of the Name’s Royal Proclamation and apology regarding the Acadian “Le Grand Derangement” which is French for “The Great Upheaval”. The proclamation was issued in 2003 and the annual day began by that proclamation in 2005. Acadians have a complex view of the proclamation. Warren Perrin’s own book “Acadian Redemption” touches upon the tensions. However, the general view among members of the ASG and others had been that there is a kind of deliberate inadequacy and a threatening tone in the proclamation and that this only adds to a world that is always dangerous. However, there is some relief and benefit to the Acadian people in that Her Britannic Majesty acknowledged the people as an ethnicity, recounted the history (however incomplete) and responded with a regular, formal and royal missive. In other words although the threat of bad relations with the UK is certainly a very bad threat in today’s world the threat of meaninglessness and blindness to the past and to human identity is greater for all people but especially the Acadians. The Proclamation has been seen as opening a door to a process that could be good or bad in the eyes of many. However, without the proclamation trouble with the UK was possible but real dialog was impossible and now both are possible.
Justice, Frank W. Summers Supreme Court of Louisiana, December 12, 1960, to December 31, 1978 and Eighteenth Chief Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court January 1, 1979, to February 29, 1980
THIS ARTICLE WAS PUBLISHED IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA ATHLETIC PROGRAM WEBSITE ORIGINALLY.
My grandfather and namesake was born September 5, 1914, in Abbeville, Louisiana to Clay R. Summers and Esther Leblanc Summers of Abbeville, Louisiana. He was a direct descendant of the Leblanc family who sold Pere Megret the land upon which Abbeville was founded and was tied to the French and Acadian relations of the family including being the real cousin of Dudley Leblanc fellow SLI alumnus and author of The Acadian Miracle and a leader in the Acadian community. Community and family were important to him all his life. This was a life in which he saw himself always as a farmer, a Catholic, a patriot and a cattleman and he was involved in many things which I will not mention here. Summers was educated in Abbeville public schools and was a student athlete Wildcat in football and track at Abbeville High School but mostly excelled at football. He continued his athletic commitments at the next level which was at the institution hosting this page, now the University of Louisiana. In addition to playing sports he earned B.A. at Southwestern Louisiana Institute in 1936. He remained attached to the University and was honored with the Outstanding Alumni award and supported several descendants there. He and I had matching chargers as I received the similar trophy as Outstanding Graduate in May of 1989. He was very pleased by that tradition.
Leaving SLI he continued his education and received an LL.B. from Tulane Law School in 1938. He then married his sometime sweetheart and only wife. The woman he we’d was part of his childhood circle of friends and was a public school teacher, fellow Abbeville native Beverly Marie Miller. My future grandmother was the daughter of Dr. Preston Joseph Miller and Laura Broussard and was a direct descendant on her mother’s side of Acadiana’s cultural Founder Joseph Broussard dit Beausoleil. Summers wed Beverly Miller in 1940 and they had six children the oldest being this writer’s father Frank Wynerth Summers II. He was the only child born early in the war while Summers served near home the second would be born when he was in the Pacific. The great conflict came when the young couple who had just started a home life and established a law practice in Abbeville were interrupted by World War II. Summers. In December 1941 he entered the Navy. He served first as a Naval Intelligence officer, then commanded an anti-U-boat converted yacht in the Gulf of Mexico before shipping out to the Pacific. In the Pacific Theater he commanded an amphibious vessel of the type called LST or “Landing Ship – Tank” in the action leading up to and following the taking of Okinawa and the surrender of Japan and other actions in the grand campaign in the Pacific. This writer does not have his records from the Pacific Fleet. He felt that he played a role typical of most men in his type of post and saw real combat but not at the center of great battles often arriving before or after the heavy fighting. He took pictures of the damage caused by the atomic bombs on his own time but had to surrender them to the Navy so they do not exist in my files. Discharged with the rank of lieutenant commander November 1945 he resumed his law practice until appointment as judge of the Fifteenth Judicial District for Acadia, Lafayette, and Vermilion parishes. He served in that office from 1952 to 1954. In all those years he worked on and managed his and his wife’s farm and cattle lands as he did later in life as well. He returned to private legal practice until election to Supreme Court in October 1960 serving as Associate Justice during almost explosive expansion of caseloads at all levels of the judiciary working very long hours until he became chief justice January 1, 1979.He used his single State of the Judiciary speech before the Legislature to urge restructuring judicial system to transfer jurisdiction for criminal appeals from Supreme Court to Courts of Appeal. His health was suffering from years of limited sleep and exercise and he retired after fourteen months as chief on February 29, 1980, to devote more energy to family, to recover his health and to devote energy to the family’s large farm and cattle ranch in Vermilion Parish. He struggled with Cancer for many years but remained somewhat active in professional, civic, and veterans’ organizations. He died January 26, 1993 when this writer was completing a Master of Arts in History at LSU and I was with him a few days before he died and served as a pallbearer at his funeral.
This sketch relies in part on the work of Janice Shull, “Frank Summers” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana, Edited by David Johnson, Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities 2010. Article Published October 13, 2014.
Joseph Broussard dit Beausoleil: My ancestor, resistance leader in Acadie, Captain of the Attakapas, little understood he stands tall as the founding Basileus of the New Acadia.
Kate Chopin was a British American of the general group known as Kentuckians in those days. Kate married a wealthy white Creole of Louisiana by the name of Chopin. She wrote clearly and beautifully about the lives of Louisiana’s white Creoles and the peoples with whom they interacted. This group of neighbors mostly included Anglos and Creoles of Color in her books. Her powerful novella The Awakening is extremely meaningful to several separate groups of readers several of which include me.
Kisinoaks A property purchased and developed by my grandparents and where they also lived, The principal residence was a smallish antebellum Acadian mansion Anglicized by a Dr. Tarleton, carved up into a sort of boarding house and then cut in half and floated down river to the site where they already had a small cottage we call a “camp”. The house was redesigned, given a large facade and furnished using the advantages my grandparents had through their furniture business. Then a swimming pool, cabana, terrace and family shrine were added to the rear of the property near the camp already existed. A dock had already existed on the Vermilion River at that point. Part of the woods was given over to the oldest son, my uncle who built a fine redwood and glass house which passed out of the family years ago. The place has been in steady decline and been somewhat subdivided in recent years. I spent a lot of time there when I was young and it was a place of activity for a host of colorful and varied characters to gather for many years.
Knights of Columbus A Catholic Men’s Fraternal, Charitable and Life Insurance order with American Patriotic and Catholic Christian Chivalric traditions founded in the nineteenth century in Connecticut. I am an inactive member.
Knights of the Invisible Empire of the Ku Klux Klan Also known with the same name given here but with the word White preceding all the others i.e. “White Knights…” also known as the Ku Klux Klan, the KKK and the Klan. The Klan share many motifs, traditions and operating procedures with the much older Ridelles and somewhat older Comites de Vigilance that existed among the Acadians. These Acadian Groups would have been riding under a Basileus named Leblanc at the time of Klan formation and Leblanc means “the White”. In the secret Acadian government there is a tradition that the early Klan had secret ties to the Acadian Secret Government as long as the leaders were largely old Confederate cavalry officers and a select group who had shared the knowledge other than these. Ku Klux comes from a Greek word KUKLOS or cuclos meaning circle. However, the Klan always had it own symbols too and those grew in importance and common symbols declined. The Cross-Lighting was never an Acadian symbol but perhaps went with the ideas of ethnic differentiation that are very Acadian.
Knights of Saint Lazarus A social and charitable order with disputed connections to a medieval Christian Chivalric order. My grandfather Chief Justice Frank W. Summers of the Louisiana Supreme Court belonged to this order.
Knights of the White Camellia Basically a special Louisiana version of the Ku Klux Klan. The name is a triple entendre it references the beautiful flowers of this area, the legendary kingdom of Arthur of the Round Table, and the Chivalric legacy left by Prince Camille de Polignac during the Civil War.
Krewe of Rex A carnival and Mardi Gras social order which has more seriously represented royalist values over time than most such associations of equal importance.
La Rochelle A town and associated region in France which was the center of the Acadian settlement in the realm just before the settlers began to cross to the New World. This meant migrations involved in the founding of Acadie on the Atlantic seaboard in what is now Canada.
Languedoc According to modern scholars French int the Middle Ages is best understood as dominated by two dialects which were not entirely defined and cohesive in themselves. These dialects were langue d’oc (läNg dôk) which gave its name to one of the two regions of nearly equal historical importance to modern France’s heritage although two-thirds of the Territory of Medieval France during the time the Acadians were secretly and openly existing in a an unusual cultural and political enclave was in the Paix des Coutumes. The lands of these two parts of France consisted of three hundred secret chiefs of Later Gaul who were in the secret half of the sway of the Frankish Kings. The Chief Protector of the Barriere Invisible which ran from La Rochelle to Geneva on a straight line was the tenth ranked chef des peuple et coutumes who was the Basileus Arkadios. However Alsace was a Germanic Langedoile province with a chief and rights in the Paix des Coutumes. The Paiz des COutumes had not only an unwritten but a secret constitution governed by written documents of Roman Law, ancient treaties and an acceptance of the Frankish King in the other region. Le Conseil des Chefs were made up of Gallic, Roman, German, Greek and Hebrew French Chiefs in order of number in the Council. The most important Greek chief was that of the Acadians. Ties to the Byzantine exiles and ruined Greeks around the world were maintined by this council. The other of the two regions was Languedoile and it derived its name from the other major dialect langue d’oïl (dôēl`). Mostly these people followed written laws of the King and Council they commended without negotiation by a system of Dukes and Germanic feudalism. However Dukes did accept the advice and skilss of the Southern Secret Chiefs in governing their fiefdoms. As keepers of the border Acadians had genes, ties and influences form both groups.
Thus there were real differences besides deriving their names and cultural differences from the two principal groups of medieval French dialects the regions had other differences. Modern histories of the time are written from a Languedoile perspective — a period of cooperation and competition in peace and a sense of pervasive union was followed by what might be termed a very long civil war and that strife occasioned the exodus of several groups including the Acadians to the New World. Langue d’oc (literally, “language of (one variant of) yes”) was spoken south of a line running, roughly, from Bordeaux to Grenoble almost identical to the BarriereInvisible for law, whereas langue d’oïl (literally, “language of (the successful variant of) yes”) was prevalent in central and northern France.
legitimate for principal meaning see filiation. For Acadian and allied titles it means a title sealed by homage or acclamation which has the three roots in order. These are heredity, election and merit. See Genealogy in this glossary for the legitimate succession of the Basileus. Many offices in the Ethnos Arkadios are more purely elected, others are more purely hereditary or more puely based on raw merit. In the majority of cases the elections involve acts from above and below. Frequently the Basileus will elct the final holder from a slate of nominees or will submit a slate of nominees from a merit qualified pool to a democratic election. There are many combinations of the principles. There are books to be written about all this and some that have been written touch upon it but I will not do that sort of thing here.
Le Orde des Bon Temps means “The Order of Good Times”. An order presided over in part by Acadianrecipients of chivalric and noble titles in both France and the United Kindom as well as by chiefs of the Ethnos Arkadios in Acadie. Although a thanksgiving prayer and gifts of food to the poor and trade with the Micmac tribe were all works of this order these were not their principal activities. Their principal purpose was simply to have a truly grand feast on regular ocasions so as to maintain commercial levels of demand for the finest foods both able to be produced in the colony and able to be imported in cost effective quantities.
Little King of Mardi Gras This is a social honor bestowed in many towns on a small boy or very young and small boy during Carnival season and rewards costuming, poise and other things. I won this once and was in the Honor Guard a second time when I was a little child. My nieces were elected Queen and Duchess of their school respectively in Mexico and I was there to participate in both the the election and the festivities. Something not understood in places like Holland, Spain and Britain is that while in a royalist system and country carnival royalty is and ought to be a set-side for misrule to some degree in a republic it is more nuanced and is largely a showcase for royalist values and ritual which are otherwise hidden or absent.
Lord Norton Here this means Philip Lord Norton Baron of Louth. A created Peer and a prominent Conservative he is the author of many books including the British Polity and others that deal with issues of Parliament governance and civil society. He is a professor at Hull University and leads a Parliamentary academic internship program as well as being active in varied fora in Europe and the Commonwealth. He is the blogger on Lords of the Blog with whom I became most involved in dialog and later followed to the newer The Norton View. I am back to commenting as I type this but less often and less in depth.
Lords of the Blog A collection of blogs united and interactive to some varying degree over time which relate to the life and work of the House of Lords. This collection allows comments with a moderators doorkeeping function. It was interacting with this blog that brought me here to WordPress and thus stimulated the formation of this blog.
Louisiana Militia Tradition Louisiana had a militia under bothe French and Spanish Colonial rule. It had a special Acadian Militia under Spanish rule as well. It had a militia as the La Nouvelle France Seule et Sans Espoir and again under the Spanish. It had a Militia as the United States Teritory of Orleans and there was another militia in the Republic of West Florida. It had a militia as a US state until seceding and becoming the Republic of Louisiana and then as a State of the United States of America. A couple of times there has been a secondary Home Guard as part of this militia and the militia itself is part of the National Guard. I have several fairly close friends in the National Guard and an uncle who served in it when I was a child. One of my friends in the National guard is an Hollier and I have found Holliers in both the eighteenth and nineteenth century militias of Louisiana.
Louisiana Native Guard A group of Gens Libre de Coleurs who owned slaves and served first under the Confederacy and then under the Union banner. They are the only entire unit known by me to have changed sides during the war. However, the story is complicated and I find them to be largely honorable as human beings in such situations go at any time.
Louisiana Privilege A privilege extended to representatives of the non Acadian citizens of the State of Louisiana but especially Anglo-Americans and Scots Americans the as long as a certain portion of the Governors of the State were Acadians of a certain rank then various reports, forms of aid and kinds of representation would be extended by the Ethnos Arkadios to the State of Louisiana. Governor Dupre’s whose mother was a Fontenot, Governor Thibodaux and Governor Hebert and Governor Mouton were all tribe members. However, those times have ceased.
Louisiana State University also LSU. This is the place where I got my Master of Arts degree. I attended as a holder of the Board of Regents Fellowship. It is the largest university in Louisiana, home of the Fighting Tigers or Bayou Bengals and has many claims to excellence. My sister graduated with a perfect academic average after matriculating for only three and a half years while she worked and during which time she was wed and gave birth to her first child. She was admitted as a National Merit Scholar.
Loups Garous the words mean “werewolves” whether they exist as a shrinking very elite paramilitary force with esoteric traditions among the Acadians of South Louisiana or they do not. They are referenced obliquely in Flaherty’s filmLouisiana Story and in Segura’s book Marshland Trinity. They are not much mentioned elsewhere.
Lykos (or Lycos): The Wolf-man King of Arcadia who established many of the nation’s royalist traditions.
Maranatha Youth Group A social and religious group I helped found of Catholic young people in Titahi Bay, New Zealand.
Machine was one of the two formal factions of the Louisiana Democratic Party which endured the longest during the decades of a one party solid South when the Democratic Party primary elections were the only elections that mattered in almost all Louisiana races. The two Long brothers who were governors and the Longist governors were almost faithful Machine members but Longism and Machine are distinct. Machine favored strong social programs out of Baton Rouge for most of its existence.
Madame Pontalba see Pontalba
Maisonnat, Pierre the privateer under the French standard, Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste was born in Bergerac, France 1663 which had been the end of one line coming from La Rochelle and with the the other lines which were coming from reaching Poitiers and connecting Poitiers and La Rochelle formed le triangle nord de Grecs which was the larger part of the sway of the Chef des Acadiens and another Greek subchief who did not make the transition to this era. Other Greek districts in Languedoc existed and like elsewhere the Greeks were outnumbered and mostly absorbed into Gallo-Roman or other majorities, but these districts were not under the Basileus. There was another part of Acadian territory in France was islands an villages around of La Rochelle on the coast more densely distributed near La Rochelle and running more sparsely south and north of there. Tied to Acadian identity Maisonnat loyally served the King of France against New England with an Acadian crew. He also died in Acadie after August 1714 having become famous for the success he had against New England merchant shipping and fishing interests. Baptiste’s crew members were primarily Acadians from the New World with some from the old world as well. He laid a foundation in the Acadian government for working with privateers which continued through to ties with Jean Lafitte, who was not an Acadian, in the battle of New Orleans in 1814. The Acadian captains between 1700 and 1814 sailed in almost every sea and although never in large numbers their crafts were often successful and lent valuable support to the rest of the people during Le Grand Derangement.
Marists A Catholic religious order which arranged my family’s first Christian missionary journey. My parents each taught English at a separate single sex academy in Tonga. These priests and associated orders had sains and founders who filled my reading along with other books for several years.
Mensa The international high IQ society to which I still adhere in several electronic incarnations and of which I was once an active member but now am no longer participating in largely because of the basic logisitics involved. They have great games and puzzles, do some work to help gifted children and also discuss and facilitate discussion of many topics likely to be of interest to their members.
Maison de Le Roi (also Oikous Megaloikounis Basliei Akradios kai Arkadikoi) meaning more or less the Royal House or House of the King. This is a branch of the Cinque and its predecessor and hoped for successor governments that actually moves. It is with the Basileus on the more public (oddly enough) Noir et Soir side of governance as part of the First Branch. However on the (oddly enough) more sheltered side called Beausoleil et Blanc of governance the royal house shifts over with the other moving branch, the Tout et Rien, to form the Second Branch which it then leads. On this side the Basileus alone is First Branch with minimal assistance by the Basilissa (wife) and the Premiere Prince Herediteur. On this B&B side the Basileus is President and has eight votes voting last, The Basilissa (wife) has seven voting second to last. The Basilissa (mother) presides over the inner table de jure . The Prince Pere presides over the outer table de jure. The Premiere Prince Heriditeur presides over the dais. The Mistress of Ceremonies presides over the rest. If any of these offices is unfilled by situation the Basileus fills Presidencies by appointment. Unless the Conditions to demand a that a Parfait exist are met then there is no need to constitute this branch and abbreviated and casual forms may be used. De jure members are all heirs (except the permanent heirs) and their spouses, all children and siblings of the Basileus of any kind whatever. Also de jure members are the Basilissa and her parents and siblings below the rank of Prince. The Basileus also extends membership de jure to any mistresses, concubines or plural wives of the Basileus and any confidant, bodyguard or full time free servant of La Famille de le Roi or any of its members who are not automatic members of a princely Acadian clan or foreign allied royal family. Eligible members are all close constant companions in the domestic sphere or at arms of any of the de jure members as well as any spouses, children, parents or consanguinates to the third degree of the de jure members. Also those not de jure because of competing royal and Princely claims are eligible. Function and role within the House is very unequal and stratified and voting also but there is some honor and some official work available to all members and not available to anyone not a member.
Michelle Denise Broussard Summers,born Michelle Denise Broussard, (at the time of this rewriting and for many years prior) Michelle Broussard Hanes As of March 3, 2014 Michelle has been my only wife and there are no prospects for any other that are at all likely. She is the person I have been closest to in my life and we were continuously together sharing a great deal for the better part of a decade.
Michelle and I may have run into each other as we were near enough in age — I am two years her senior — and we both call Abbeville our hometown. Although she was a true native and I was born in Crowley in Acadia Parish. Michelle and I really met in September of 1986 at an Honors Seminar meeting at USL and then I brought Mom with me to run into her at work (by accident). Our first date was a homecoming football game. Before I met her there were light and dark themes in her life and good and bad times in her memory. As I grow older my sense of any personal access to justice or a true accounting of my life seems to grow ever smaller. But it did seem to me she was a bit of a damsel in distress who blossomed after we got together. We never fully agreed on the future, achieved complete consistency with what she had hoped or I had and we had our ups and downs but mostly we were happy together and made a life which worked well enough to make progress. We got to know each other’s friends and family but spent most of our time together alone with one another and it was a great deal of time. Michelle was the youngest of five children, a majorette/twirler, played piccolo, baked and was the closest companion I have ever had. We both got undergraduate degrees forever from the same English department . I finished only a little before her considering the age difference.We married December 19, 1987. We split living conditions in early 1995 and I have never seen her again. We had no children. The dates of our legal separation, divorce and Roman Catholic annulment have never been embedded in my mind. I have not come close to remarrying from that time to this nor to marrying before her. However, other women have been important in my life.
Micmac The Aboriginal American tribe which played the most important role in Acadian history. The Micmac were close allies of the Acadians prior to Le Grand Derangement.
Mount Carmel Elementary School A school in Abbeville, Louisiana which was founded by the Catholic women’s religious order of the Sisters of Mount Carmel. When my parents were young it included the secondary school which was Mount Carmel High School which is where they both graduated. However, by the time I went there the High School was a diocesan and parish school called Vermilion Catholic High School and it is still such a school with the same name. I went to first, third,fourth and part of fifth grade as well as seventh and part of eighth there. In the last few years I founded a Facebook group call Abbeville’s Mount Carmel Elementary School Attendees. This group had (last I checked) over 300 members and was growing well although that may have flattened out and even begun to decline. There is no onsite convent now and few sisters associated with the school but it still is a Carmelite school.
Mouton One of the Princely names of the Ethnos Arkadios. Two of the Basileii in Louisiana have been Moutons between the Broussards and the Leblancs. General Mouton died in the Battle of Mansfield the last major Confederate victory after a distinguished career and his command fell to Prince Camille de Polignac. The longest entry on this name can be found in this glossary under Jean-Jacques-Alfred-Alexandre Mouton.
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